The international carriage of goods by sea refers to the act that which the carrier carries the goods consigned by the sea shipper from one port to another port by the sea in accordance with the provisions of the contract of carriage of goods by sea.
The characteristics of international carriage of goods by sea
Charter means to charter the whole ship.
Charter is cheaper than the liner, and direct routes can be selected, so bulk goods are generally transported by charter. There are two main ways of chartering vessels: fixed voyage chartering and time chartering.
A voyage charter is based on a voyage charter, also known as a voyage charter. The ship must carry the goods according to the voyage stipulated in the charter party and be responsible for the operation and management of the ship and all expenses incurred during the voyage. The freight of a charter ship is generally calculated according to the number of goods shipped, but also according to the voyage charter amount.
The rights and obligations of the charterers shall be stipulated in the charter party as follows: In the form of a voyage charter, the contract shall specify whether the charterers bear the loading and unloading costs at the port.
If the ship is not responsible for loading and unloading, the time or rate of loading and unloading shall be specified in the contract, together with demurrage and dispatch accordingly. If the Lessee fails to complete the loading and unloading within the time limit. A certain penalty, demurrage, shall be paid to the vessel to compensate her for the delay in sailing caused thereby. If the charterer completes the loading and unloading work in advance, the ship shall pay the charterer a certain bonus, called dispatch money. Usually, despatch is half of the demurrage.
Time charter refers to the method of chartering ships for transport for a certain period of time, also known as time charter. The shipowner shall provide seaworthy ships within the term of the charter stipulated in the contract and bear the relevant expenses for maintaining seaworthiness. During this period, charterers can dispatch and control vessels within the prescribed navigation area by themselves, but they shall be responsible for the costs of fuel, port charges, handling charges and other expenses during operation.
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